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Listen to Kaaris SoundCloud is an audio platform that lets you listen to what you love and share the sounds you create. Play on Spotify. Four loaded trains were in sight, and the famished array about to be supplied, when the head of Sheridan's column dashed on the scene, captured the provisions, and drove the vanguard back to Appomattox Courthouse, four miles off. Sheri- dan's impetuous troopers met a sudden and bloody check in the streets of the village, the colonel commanding the advance being killed.
That morning General Lee had divided the remnant of his army into two wings, under Gordon and Longslreet — Gordon having the advance and Longstreet the rear. Upon the repulse of the cavalry, Gordon's corps advanced through the village and spent another night of sleepless vigilance and anxiety; while Longstreet, four miles in the rear, had to entrench against the Army of the Potomac under Meade.
Lee attacked Sheridan's splendid cavalry, outnum- bering them more than four to one, and flushed with the full con- fidence of victory and the assurance that, if they needed support, the 'Army of the James' was close at hand. Yet, despite these odds and the exhaustion of these famishing men, they went into that fight with the heroic courage which ever characterized that old corps, and proved themselves not unworthy of Stonewall Jackson, Ewell, Early, Gordon, Rodes, Ramseur, Pegram, J.
Walker, C. Evans and other noble leaders, whom they had been wont to follow to victory. Utterly unable to withstand the onset, Sheridan hastened in person to hurry up the ' Army of the James,' while Gordon drove his 'invincible troopers' more than a mile, and cap- tured and brought off two pieces of artillery and a large number of prisoners. Had only Sheridan barred the way the surrender had not occurred at Appomattox Courthouse ; but Gordon only drove back the cavalry to find himself confronted by the ' Army of the James' and the road blocked by ten times his numbers.
Venable, of the staff of General Lee, was at 3 o'clock A. Halting a short dis- tance in rear of our vanguard he sent me on to General Gordon to ask him if he could break through the enemy. I found General Gordon and General Fitz. Lee on their front line, in the dim light of the morning, arranging an attack. Gordon's reply to the mes- sage I give the expressive phrase of the gallant Georgian was this : ' Tell General Lee I have fought my corps to a frazzle, and I fear I can do nothing unless I am heavily supported by Longstreet's corps' When I bore this message back to General Lee, he said : ' Then there is nothing left me but to go and see General Grant, f and I would rather die a thousand deaths.
Said one, ' Oh! General, what will history say of the surrender of the army in the field? The question is, is it right to surrender this army? If it is right, then I will take all the responsibility. General,— I received at a late hour your note of to-day, in answer to mine of yesterday. I did not intend to propose the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, but to ask the terms of your proposition. To be frank, I do not think the emergency has arisen to call for the surrender. But as the restoration of peace should be the sole object of all, I desire to know whether your proposals would tend to that end.
I cannot, therefore, meet you with a view to the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, but so far as your proposition may aifect the Confede- rate States forces under my command and lead to the restoration of peace. I should be pleased to meet you at lo A. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, R. Lee, General, Confederate States Armies. General Grant replied : April 9TH. Lee, Commanding C. As I have no authority to treat on the subject of peace, the meeting proposed for 10 A. I will state, however. General, that I am equally anxious for peace with yourself, and the whole North entertain the same feeling.
The terms upon which peace can be had are well understood. By the South laying down their arms they will hasten that most desirable event, save thousands of human lives, and hundreds of millions of property not yet destroyed.
Sincerely hoping that all our difficulties may be settled without the loss of another life, I subscribe myself. Grant, Lieutenant- General U. The exigency had come. XI the futile struggle was inhuman. He had at once had the white flag raised, and sent the following note to General Grant : April 9, General, — I received your note this morning on the picket line, whither I had come to meet you and ascertain definitely what terms were embraced in your proposition of yesterday with reference to the surrende;-of thearmy.
I now ask an interview in accordance with the offer contained in your letter of yesterday for that purpose. Lieutenant- General U. Colonel Taylor, before cited, states, that, reporting to General Lee about this time as to the parking of the army trains, about which he had been engaged, that General Lee said to him : " Well, Colonel, what are we to do?
General, it is different with you.
Les nouvelles paroles de chansons et traductions - Page 435:
You have to think of these brave men, and decide not only for yourself but for them. General Lee then retraced his steps, and proceeding toward our front in the direction of Appomattox Court- house, dismounted at a convenient place to await General Grant's communication. This proved to be General Forsythe, of General Sheridan's staff, who was sent by General Sheridan to say that, as he had doubt as to his authority to recog- nize the informal truce which had been agreed on between General Gordon and himself, he desired to communicate with General Meade on the subject, and wished permission to pass through our lines as the shortest route.
I was a. This was scarcely accom- plished when General Babcock rode up and announced to General Lee that General Grant was prepared to meet him at the front. To the communication of General Lee, asking an interview. Gen- eral Grant replied as follows : April gxH, S Army : Your note of this date is but this moment Girr. I am at this writing about four miles west of Walker's church, and will push forward to the front for the purpose of meeting you.
Notice sent to me on this road, where you wish the interview to lake place, will meet me. Grant, Lieutenant- General, General Horace Porter, of Grant's staff, writes : ; ; "About one o'clock the little village of Appomattox Courthouse, with its half dozen houses, came in sight, and soon we were entering its single street. It is situated on some rising ground, and beyond, the country slopes down into a broad valley. The enemy was seen with his columns and wagon trains covering the low ground.
Our cavalry, the Fifth Corps, and part of Ord's command were occupying the high ground to the south and west of the enemy, heading him off completely. He said General Lee and Colonel Babcock had gone into this house a short time Ijefore, and he was ordered to post himself in the street and keep a lookout for General Grant, so as to let him know where General Lee was.
A hall ran through the middle from front to back, and on each side was a room having two windows, one in front and one in rear. Each room had two doors leading into the hall. The building stood a little distance back from the street, with a yard in front, and to the left was a gate for car- riages and a roadway running to a stable in the rear. We entered the grounds by this gate and dismounted. In the yard were seen a fine, large gray horse, which proved to be General Lee's, and a good-looking mare belonging to Colonel Marshall.
An orderly in gray was in charge of them, and had taken off their bridles to let ihem nibble the grass. As he stepped into the hall, Colonel Babcock, who had seen his approach from the window, opened the door of the room on the left, in which he had been sitting with General Lee and Colonel Marshall, awaiting General Grant's arrival. The General passed in, while the members of the staff, Generals Sheridan and Ord, and some general officers who had gathered in the front yard, remained outside, feeling that he would probably want his first interview with General Lee to be, in a measure, private.
In a few minutes Colonel Babcock came to the front door, and, making a motion with his hat towards the sitting room, said, 'The General says come in. Colonel Marshall, his military secretary, was standing at his left side. We walked in softly, and ranged ourselves quietly about the sides of the room, very much as people enter a sick chamber when they expect to find the patient dangerously ill. Some found seats on the sofa and a few chairs, which constituted the furniture, but most of the party stood. His hair and full beard were a nut-brown, without a trace of gray in them.
He had on a single-breasted blouse, made of dark-blue flannel, unbuttoned in front, and showing a waistcoat underneath.
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He wore an ordinary pair of top-boots, with his trousers inside, and was without spurs. The boots and portions of his clothes were spattered with mud. He had on a pair of thread gloves, of a dark-yellow color, which he had taken off in entering the room. His felt ' sugar- loaf stiff brimmed hat was thrown on the table beside him. He had no sword, and a pair of shoulder-straps was all there was about him to designate his rank.
In fact, aside from these, his uniform was that of a private soldier. His hair and full beard were a silver gray, and quite thick, except that the hair had become a little thin in front. He wore a new uni- form of Confederate gray, buttoned up to the throat, and at his side he carried a long sword of exceedingly fine workmanship, the hilt studded with jewels. It was said to be the sword which had been presented to him by the State of Virginia. His top-boots were comparatively new, and seemed to have on them some ornamental stitching of red silk.
Like his uniform, they were singularly clean, and but little travel-stained. On the boots were handsome spurs, with large rowels. A felt hat, which, in color, matched pretty closely that of his uniform, and a pair of long buckskin gauntlets lay be- side him on the table. We asked Colonel Marshall afterwards how it was that both he and his chief wore such fine toggery, and looked so much as if they had just turned out to go to church, while with us our outward garb scarcely rose to the dignity of even of the 'shabby-genteel.
XV explaining that when their headquarters' wagons had been pressed so closely by our cavalry a few days before, and it was found they would have to destroy all their baggage, except the clothes they car- ried on their backs, each one, naturally, selected the newest suit he had, and sought to propitiate the gods of destruction by a sacrifice of his second best. I have always remembered your appearance, and I think I should have recognized you any- where. General Grant, that the object of our present meeting is fully understood. I asked to see you, to ascertain upon what terms you would receive the surrender of my army?
Lee was evidently anx- ious to proceed to the formal work of the surrender, and he brought the subject up again by saying : ' I presume, General Grant, we have both carefully considered the proper steps to be taken, and I would suggest that you commit to writing the terms you have proposed so that they may be formally acted upon. He wrote very rapidly and did not pause until he had finished the sentence ending with ' officers appointed by me to receive them.
He said afterwards that this set him to thinking that it would be an unnecessary humiliation to require the officers to surrender their swords, and a great hardship to deprive them of their personal baggage and horses, and after a short pause he wrote the sentence, ' This will not embrace the side arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. It was as follows : Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, April gth, General,— In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th instant, I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of North- ern Virginia on the following- terms, to-wit: Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate — one copy to be given to an officer to be des- ignated by me ; the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate.
The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly [ex- changed], and each company or regimental commander to sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery, and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officers appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by the United States authorities so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside.
Very respectfully, U. Grant, Lieutenant- General. It consisted of two pages. XVII ' until properly,' the word 'exchanged ' seems to be omitted. You doubtless intended to use that word. Seeing this, and happening to be stand- ing close to him, I handed him my pencil. He took it, and laying the paper on the table noted the interlineation. During the rest of the interview he kept twirling this pencil in his fingers and occasionally tapping the top of the table with it. When he handed it back it was carefully treasured by me as a memento of the occa- sion.
When Lee came to the sentence about the officers' side-arms, private horses and baggage he showed for the first time during the reading of the letter a slight change of countenance, and was evi- dently touched by this act of generosity. It was doubtless the con- dition mentioned to which he particularly alluded when he looked towards General Grant as he finished reading and said with some degree of warmth in his manner : ' This will have a very happy effect upon my army. Its organization in this respect differs from that of the United States.
He continued, ' I would like to understand whether these men will be permitted to take their private property? It will be very gratifying and will do much towards con- ciliating our people. Bowers was a little nervous, and he turned the matter over to Colonel afterwards General Parker, whose handwriting presented a better appearance than that of any one else on the staff. Parker sat down to write at the table which stood against the rear side of the room.
Colonel Marshall wrote out a draft of such a letter, making it quite formal, beginning with, ' I have the honor to reply to your commu- nication,' etc. General Lee took it, and after reading it over very carefully, directed that these formal expressions be stricken out, and that the letter be otherwise shortened. He afterwards went over it again, and seemed to change some words, and then told the Colonel to make a final copy in ink.
When it came to providing the paper it was found we had the only supply of that important ingredient in the recipe for surrendering an army, so we gave a few pages to the Colonel. General,— I received your letter of this date containing the terms of the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, as proposed by you. As they are substantially the same as those expressed in your letter of the 8th instant they are accepted.
I will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the stipulations into effect. Lee, General Lieutenant- General U. XIX " While the letters were being copied, General Grant introduced the general officers who had entered, and each member of the staff, to General Lee. The General shook hands with General Seth Wil- liams, who had been his Adjutant when Lee was Superintendent at West Point some years before the war, and gave his hand to some of the other officers who had extended theirs, but to most of them who were introduced he merely bowed in a dignified and formal manner.
He did not exhibit the slightest change of features during this cere- mony, until Colonel Parker, of our staff, was presented to him. Par- ker was a full-blooded Indian, and the reigning Chief of the Six Nations. When General Lee saw his swarthy features, he looked at him with an evident stare of surprise, and his eyes rested on him for several seconds. What was passing in his mind probably no one ever knew, but the natural surmise was, that he at first mistook Par- ker for a negro, and was struck with astonishment to find that the Commander of the Union armies had one of that race on his per- sonal staff.
Wil- liams at one time referred, in rather a jocose manner, to a circum- stance which occurred during their former service together, as if he wanted to say something, in a good-natured way, to break up the frigidity of the conversation, but Lee was in no mood for pleasantries, and he did not unbend or even relax the fixed sternness of his fea- tures. His only response to the allusion was a slight inclination of the head. General Lee now took the initiative again in leading the conversation back into business channels. He said : ' I have a thou- sand or more of your men as prisoners, General Grant, a number of them officers, whom we have required to march along with us for several days.
I shall be glad to send them into your lines as soon as it can be arranged, for I have no provisions for them. I have, indeed, nothing for my own men. They have been living for the past few days principally upon parched corn, and we are badly in need of both rations and forage. I telegraphed to Lynchburg, di- recting several train loads of rations to be sent on by rail from there, and when they arrive I should be glad to have the present wants of my men supplied from them.
I will take steps at once to have your army supplied with rations, but I am sorry we have no forage for the animals. We have had to depend upon the country for our supply of forage. Of about how many men does your present force consist? All my reports and public papers, and, indeed, my own private letters, had to be destroyed on the march to prevent them from falling into the hands of your people. Many companies are entirely without officers, and I have not seen any returns for several days ; so that I have no means of ascertaining our present strength.
Colonel afterwards General Morgan, who was present, and directed him to arrange for issuing the rations. I have generally worn a sword, however, as little as possible, only during the actual operations of a campaign. Lee took the notes out of the breast-pocket of his coat and handed them to Sheridan, with a few words expressive of regret that the circumstance had occurred, and intimating that it must have been the result of some misunderstanding.
XXI present, the two letters were signed and delivered, and the parties prepared to separate. Lee, before parting, asked Grant to notify Meade of the surrender, fearing that fighting might break out on that front, and lives be uselessly lost. This request was complied with, and two Union officers were sent through the enemy's lines as the shortest route to Meade — some of Lee's officers accompany- ing them to prevent their being interfered with.
At a little before four o'clock, General Lee shook hands with General Grant, bowed to the other officers, and with Colonel Marshall left the room. One after another, we followed and passed out into the porch. Lee sig- nalled to his orderly to bring up his horse, and while the animal was being bridled the General stood on the lowest step and gazed sadly in the direction of the valley beyond where his army lay — now an army of prisoners. He smote his hands together a number of times in an absent sort of way ; seemed not to see the group of Union officers in the yard who rose respectfully at his approach, and ap- peared unconscious of everything about him.
All appreciated the sadness which overwhelmed him, and he had the personal sympathy of everyone who beheld him at this supreme moment of trial. The approach of his horse seemed to recall him from his reverie, and he at once mounted. General Grant now stepped down from the porch, and moving towards him, saluted him by raising his hat. He was followed in this act of courtesy by all of our officers present.
Lee raised his hat respectfully in acknowledgment, and rode off to break the sad news to the brave fellows whom he had so long commanded. He dismounted by the road-side, sat down on a large stone, and called for pencil and paper. Colonel afterwards General Badeau handed his order-book to the General, who wrote on one of the leaves the following message, a copy of which was sent to the nearest telegraph station.
It is dated at 4. The accompanying additional cor- respondence will show the conditions fully. The men crowded around him eager to shake him by the hand ; eyes that had so often illumined with the fire of patriotism and true courage; that had so often glared with defiance in the heat and fury of battle, and so often kindled with enthusiasm and pride in the hour of success, moistened now ; cheeks bronzed by expo. As soon as Lee heard that his distinguished opponent was approaching, he was prompt to correct the misunder- standing at the picket line, and rode out at a gallop to receive him.
They met on a knoll which overlooked the lines of the two armies, and saluted respectfully by each raising his hat. The officers present gave a similar salute, and then grouped themselves around the two chieftains in a semi-circle, but withdrew out of ear-shot. XXIII " Grant began by expressing a hope that the war would soon be over, and Lee replied by stating that he had for some time been anxious to stop the further effusion of blood, and he trusted that everything would now be done to restore harmony and conciliate the people of the South. He said the emancipation of the negroes would be no hin- drance to the restoring of relations between the two sections of the country, as it would probably not be the desire of the majority of the Southern people to restore slavery then, even if the question were left open to them.
He could not tell what the other armies would do or what course Mr. Davis would now take, but he believed it would be best for their other armies to follow his example, as noth- ing could be gained by further resistance in the field. Finding that he entertained these sentiments. General Grant told him that no one's influence in the South was so great as his, and suggested to him that he should advise the surrender of the remaining armies and thus exert his influence in favor of immediate peace. Lee said he could not take such a course without consulting President Davis first.
Grant then proposed to Lee that he should do so, and urge the hastening of a result which was admitted to be inevitable. Lee, however, was averse to stepping beyond his duties as a soldier, and said the authorities would doubtless soon arrive at the same conclu- sion without his interference. Lincoln and talk with him as to the terms of reconstruc- tion, but this was erroneous.
I am of opinion that the mistake arose from hearing that Lee had been requested to go and see the President regarding peace, and thinking that this expression referred to Mr. Lincoln, whereas it referred to Mr. After the conversation had lasted a little more than half an hour, and Lee had requested that such instruc- tions be given to the officers left in charge to carry out the details of the surrender that there might be no misunderstanding as to the form of paroles, the manner of turning over the property, etc.
The two commanders lifted their hats and said good-bye.
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Lee rode back to his camp to take a final farewell of his army, and Grant returned to McLean's house, where he seated him- self on the porch until it was time to take his final departure. During the rest of the day I was so constantly occupied with details that I had no time to write the order ; so that next morning, when the General called for it, it was not prepared.
He then directed me to get into his ambulance, standing before his tent, and get to work at it at once, and placed an orderly on guard to prevent my being interrupted. As soon as I had made a draft in lead-pencil I sub- mitted it to the General, who struck out a whole paragraph and made some verbal alterations, when I had the rough draft, thus corrected, signed by General Lee. This was copied and signed by him for corps commanders and staff officers, and many copies were made and his autograph procured as souvenirs by couriers and per- sons about headquarters.
General Orders, No. After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources. I need not tell the sur- vivors of so many hard-fought battles, who have remained steadfast to the last, that I have consented to this result from no distrust of them, but feel- ing that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing that would compen- sate for the loss that must have attended a continuance of the contest, I determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endeared them to their countrymen.
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By the terms of agreement, officers, and men can return to their homes and remain until exchanged. You will take with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully performed, and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will extend to you His blessing and protection. With an unceasing admiration of your constancy and devotion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind and generous considera- tion for myself, I bid you an affectionate farewell.
The soldiers were profoundly moved at the reading to them of this noble farewell address, and crowded around the loved chieftaim to shake his hand.
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Responsive to their emotion, he touchingly said: "Men, we have fought through the war together; I have done my best for you; my heart is too full to say more. XXV indeed, had the simple utterance been attested. It was a magnificent pageant from the Chickahominy to the final act at Appomattox Courthouse; sublime in its realization of valor, endurance, and patriotism. Freedom records no sacrifices surpassing it in magni- tude. And the grand hero, Lee, reillumining the lustrous diadem of his mother, Virginia, is jointly enshrined in the reverential hearts of her sons with her Washington.
Crushingly overwhelmed, the starving Army of Northern Virginia laid down its arms, but its pitiful fate invested with mournful incense only,- its heroism and sacrifices. Its achievements will increasingly command the admiration of the world during all time. His Excellency, Jefferson Davis : Mr. The operations which preceded this result will be reported in full. I will, therefore, only now state, that, upon arriving at Amelia Courthouse on the morning of the 4th, with the advance of the army, on the retreat from the lines in front of Richmond and Petersburg, and not finding the supplies ordered to be placed there, nearly twenty-four hours were lost in endeavoring to collect in the country subsistence for men and horses.
This delay was fatal, and could not be retrieved. The troops, wearied by constant fighting and marching for several days and nights, obtained neither rest nor refreshment, and on moving on the 5th, on the Richmond and Danville railroad, I found at Jetersville the enemy's cavalry, and learned the approach of his infantry and the general advance of his army toward Burkeville.
This deprived us of the use of the railroad, and rendered it impracticable to procure from Danville the supplies ordered to meet us at points of our march. Nothing could be obtained from the adjacent country. Our route to the Roanoke was therefore changed, and the march directed upon Farmville, where sup- plies were ordered from Lynchburg. The change of route threw the troops over the roads pursued by artillery and wagon-trains west of the railroad, which impeded our advance and embarrassed our movements. On the morning of the 6th, General Longstreet's corps reached Rice's station on the Lynchburg railroad.
It was followed by the commands of Generals R. Anderson, Ewell and Gordon, with orders to close upon it as fast as the progress of the trains would permit, or as they could be directed on roads further west. General Anderson, commanding Pickett's and B. Johnson's divisions, became disconnected with Mahone's division, forming the rear of Longstreet. This caused serious delay in the march of the centre and rear of the column, and enabled the enemy to mass upon their flank.
After successive attacks, Anderson's and Ewell's corps were captured or driven from their position. The latter General, with both of his division commanders, Kershaw and Custis Lee, and his brigadiers, were taken prisoners. Gordon who, all the morning, aided by General W. Lee's cavalry, had checked the advance of the enemy on the road from Amelia Springs, and protected the trains, became exposed to his combined assaults, which he bravely resisted and twice repulsed ; but the cavalry having been withdrawn to another part of the line of march, and the enemy massing heavily on his front and both flanks, renewed the attack about 6 P.
The army continued its march during the night, and every effort was made to reorganize the divisions which had been shattered by the day's operations, but the men being de- pressed by fatigue and hunger, many threw away their arms, while others followed the wagon-trains and embarrassed their progress. On the morn- ing of the yth rations were issued to the troops as they passed Farmville, but the safety of the trains requiring their removal upon the approach of the enemy, all could not be supplied. The army reduced to two corps, under Longstreet and Gordon, moved steadily on the road to Appom.
The roads were wretched, and the progress slow. By great efforts the head of the column reached Appomattox Court- house on the evening of the 8th, and the troops were halted for rest. The march was ordered to be resumed at one i A. Lee with the cavalry, supported by Gordon, was ordered to drive the enemy from his front, wheel to the left, and cover the passage of the trains, while Longstreet, who, from Rice's station, had formed the rear-guard, should close up and hold the position.
Two battalions of artillery and the ammu- nition wagons were directed to accompany the army; the rest of the artil- lery and wagons to move toward Lynchburg. In the early part of the night the enemy attacked Walker's artillery train, near Appomattox station, on the Lynchburg railroad, and were repelled.
Shortly afterwards their cavalry dashed towards the Courthouse, till halted by our line. During the night there were indications of a large force massing on our left and front. Lee was directed to ascertain its strength, and to suspend his advance till daylight if necessary. About five 5 A. A heavy force of the enemy was discovered opposite Gordon's right, which, moving in the direction of Appomattox Courthouse, drove back the left of the cavalry, and threatened to cut off Gordon from Longstreet, his cavalry at the same time threatening to envelop his left flank. Gordon withdrew across the Appomattox river and the cavalry advanced on the Lynchburg road and became separated from the army.
XXVII tilities until these terms could be arranged. In the interview which occurred with General Grant, in compliance with my request, terms having been agreed on, I surrendered that portion of the Armj' of Northern Virginia which was on the field, with its arms, artillery and wagon trains, the officers and men to be paroled, retaining their side- arms and private effects.
I deemed this course the best under all the circumstances by which we were surrounded. The artillery, though reduced to sixty-three 63 pieces, with ninety-three 93 rounds of ammunition, was sufficient. These comprised all the supplies of ordnance that could be relied on in the State of Virginia. I have no accu- rate report of the cavalry, but believe it did not exceed twenty-one hun- dred 2, effective men.
The enemy was more than five times our num- bers. If we could have forced our way one day longer, it would have been at a great sacrifice of life, and at its end I did not see how a surrender could have been avoided. We had no subsistence for man or horse, and it could not be gathered in the country. The supplies ordered to Pamplin's sta- tion from Lynchburg could not reach us, and the men, deprived of food and sleep for many days, were worn out and exhausted. With great respect, your obedient servant, Signed R. This continued self-denial may be only explained upon the hypothesis that he desired to have his men know that he shared their privations to the very last.
John Gilliam whose farm adjoined that of Mr. Lee , a more ele- vated and desirable site. Richmond, Va. Paroles of the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee, C. Grant, Commanding Armies of United States, do hereby give our solemn parole of honor that we will not hereafter serve in the armies of the Confederate States, or in any military capacity what- ever, against the United States of America, or render aid to the enemies of the latter, until properly exchanged, in such manner as shall be mutually approved by the respective authorities. Stevens, Brig. Corley, Lt. Johnston, Lt. Southern Historical Society Papers.
Cole, Lt. Scott, Maj. Harvie, Major and C. Giddings, Surg, and Med. Purveyor A, N. George M. Wood, Capt. Breckinridge, Med'l Inspector A. George G. Thompson, Capt. Moore, Capt. Transportation A. Wingfield, Med'l Inspector A. Clagett, Surgeon P. Newton, Surgeon P. Guild, Surg. Bernard, Capt. Shell, Capt. Samuel H. Moffett, Surgeon P. John A. Selden, Capt. Brown, Capt. C, 3gth Va. Hamilton, Capt. Guild, Med. Director A. Marks, Ass't Surg. Green, ist Lt. A, 39th Bat'n Va.
John Glinze, Capt. Pattison, Capt. David Steel, Ass't Surg. Albert H. Campbell, Maj. Griffin, Ass't Eng'r. Lewis Blackford, ist Lt. Stuart, Capt. Dimmock, Capt. Sommers, Capt. Tapscott, ist Lt. Boiling, 2d Lieut. Elliott, 2d Lieut. Johnson, ist Lt. Sam'l Stevens, Capt. Reusher, Capt. Hunter, Ass't Surg, and Ass't Med. Boiling, Jr. Lyneman, Capt.
Com'd'g Res. Ambulance Co. Storke, ist Lieut. Stith, Captain C. Williams, Lt. Inns M. Williams, Capt. S, Rich'd H. Carter, Maj. TannahiU, Capt. Hudgins, Capt. TannahiU, Bonded Agt. Marrow, Major and Q. Cary, Capt. Snodgrass, Maj. Barksdale, Chief A. Lewis Ginter, Major and C. Taylor, S'r, 2d Lt. Woodrum, Jr. Ambulance Corps. The within named men will not be disturbed by United States authorities so long as they observe their parole and the laws in force where they may reside.
George H. Sharpe,  Ass' t Pro. Briscoe G. Baldwin, Lt. Saunders, Lt. Art'y P. Duflfey, Capt. Ranson, Capt.